Home-Buyer’s Guide. Client: Blu Realty

Promotional/Brochure, December 2012


BLU BUYER’S GUIDE                                                                                                                                             

Buying a home is fun and exciting. It can also be nerve-wracking. Having one of our Blu Realty agents working at your side will ensure that your best interests are looked after, and that your home-buying experience is happily memorable. Blu will help you find exactly what you’re looking for, and we’ve prepared this guide to help you streamline the process and avoid pit-falls.

1.            Make Sure You’re Ready to Buy

               If you’re thinking of buying a home, you’ve taken the first smart step by contacting Blu. But there are three things that have to be ready: You, Your Bank Account and the Real Estate Market.


Let’s talk. About what you want and what you need. We’ll help narrow your focus, find options, and ensure that you are ready to take the plunge. Plunge? Yes, it’s a big deal. There are sacrifices to make, and your home will require constant care. But it’s worth it—it’s what pride of ownership is all about.

Your Bank Account

Your first home will be the biggest financial obligation you’ll ever face. You need to have a down-payment, your debts should be managed, and you don’t foresee any issues with your source of income.

The Market

Markets go up, markets go down, and even the smartest experts can’t accurately predict when a market will peak or bottom out. But this is a long-term investment: if you choose a home that you can afford, and that meets your needs, you’ll enjoy living in your investment as it grows in value.

2.            Decide Where You Want to Live

Our city has many diverse neighbourhoods. You may be attracted to the city centre; the prices are higher, but you’ll be able to walk everywhere. Or you may want to get more for your money by moving away from downtown. Maybe you want a quiet area, maybe you want a yard, or you want to be near a specific school. Visit the various city sectors and decide which ones are right for you. Narrowing it down in advance will save time and allow you to focus your search.

3.            What Do You Want?

In real-estate speak, we refer to ‘Needs’ and ‘Wants’. ‘Needs’ are the essential things, as in number of bedrooms. ‘Wants’ are things you’d like to have—like a double-car garage.

Make lists. Needs and Wants. Must-Haves and Absolutely-Nots. As you make these lists, think about your lifestyle. Along the way, you’ll further narrow your criteria.  Your strategy is to find a home in your price range, that fulfills all or most of your ‘needs’, as many of your ‘wants’ as possible, and in a neighbourhood you like.

There are many different types of homes to choose from. Here’s a quick run-through:

               Single-Family Detached: The house is not attached to the house next door.

               Semi-Detached or Linked: Two houses share a common wall.

               Duplex: A building zoned for two families (a Triplex is zoned for three, Fourplex for four).

               Townhouse: Also known as Terrace or Row Housing. Several homes, sharing walls, are joined in a row.

               Condominium: You own 100% of your unit, plus a share of the common areas. Common areas include plumbing, electrical        systems, hallways and elevators, and may include things like party rooms and gyms.

               Loft: This is similar to a condo, but the design is open-concept and/or has exposed bricks and beams.

               Live/Work: In some cities, this can still mean that you are living above your own retail business.  Nowadays, though, it usually means that you are using at least one room of your house as an office or studio, and you run a business from that area

New or Pre-Loved?

A new house is just that. Everything is brand new and you just move in. On the other hand, not only do older homes have charm and character, but the previous owners will likely have made improvements and up-grades.

In both cases, of course, inspections are essential. ‘New’ doesn’t always mean ‘perfect’, and older homes can sometimes have a little too much character.

Building Your Own

If you want to build your own home, know your land. That means any and all restrictions on it, its neighbourhood, its history and its physical characteristics. Once you’ve chosen your design, know your builder—check references and visit other homes built by the same company. Have your Real Estate Advisor and/or lawyer review everything before you sign anything. While your home is being built, stay on top of the process with regular inspections and checks of time-lines and budgets. And remember that you have a legal right to make a full inspection of the house before you accept it as complete.

4.            Choose Your Real Estate Advisor

               The real estate market is not for do-it-yourselfers, and a good agent is worth his or her weight in gold.

Naturally, we think you should go with a Blu advisor. But if you’re reading this in a city where there is no Blu advisor, you can get referrals from friends and family members, go to Realtor.ca, meet agents at open houses, or just jot down numbers from lawn signs.

Then interview your prospective advisor. Make sure that you can establish a rapport—you don’t have to become instant best friends, but you need to see a friendly feeling right away, and you need to be able to communicate easily. Then ask questions.

               Top Ten Questions to Ask When Hiring a Real Estate Advisor

1.            How long have you been in the business?

               A newly-licensed advisor can do a wonderful job and will have up-to-date training, but practical experience is invaluable.

2.            What is your average list-to-sales-price ratio?

               A listing agent should hold a track record for negotiating sales prices that are very close to list prices.

3.            How will your marketing plan meet my needs?

               You want to know how the agent will sell your home—where and how he or she advertises. Ask to see printed materials and links to on-line marketing activities.

4.            Will you provide references?

               Ask for a list of references, then call those references.

5.            What separates you from your competition?

               Key phrases to listen for: ‘assertive’, ‘available by phone or e-mail’, ‘analytical’, ‘able to maintain a good sense of humour under trying circumstances’.

6.            May I review documents that I will be asked to sign?

               A good agent makes forms available to you before you are required to sign them. Ask to see your agency disclosure, seller disclosure and listing agreement.

7.            Can you help me find other professionals?

               Your agent should be able to provide a list of service providers who can help with things such as home inspection, legal advice and financial advice. If you see the term ‘affiliated’, ask for an explanation—this could mean that the agent is getting compensation from the people on his/her list. If that’s the case, the referral is biased and not reliable.

8.            How much do you charge?

               Real estate fees or commission are negotiable and vary from broker to broker. Negotiate the best deal.

9.            What if I’m unhappy with your service?

               You may find that your agent is not performing to your standards. You may not get along. Ask if you can cancel your agreement if you want to.

10.         What haven’t I asked you that I need to know?

               Pay close attention to the answer to this question. There is always something else you need to know.

Your Contract    

Once you’ve chosen your advisor, you will sign a contract. It will specify the advisor’s duties and obligations, and will spell out the nature of your relationship. That relationship will likely be Non-Agency, Dual Agency or Single Agency.

In the case of Dual Agency, the advisor represents the buyer and the seller, and all parties consent to this. In a Non-Agency relationship, the advisor can work with you, but cannot give you advice. Also, in this case, nothing you say is confidential.

Most people prefer the Single Agency relationship, where your advisor represents you alone, and is required to act only in your best interests. Anything you tell your advisor is confidential, and your advisor has an obligation to disclose to you any and all information related to the transaction.

What to Expect from Your Real Estate Advisor

Your advisor will perform many essential functions. First of all, he or she will become an expert on your wants, needs and financial parameters, and will make sure that you view only those homes that are right for you. Your agent is a resource for comparing homes and neighbourhoods, will be privy to non-public features of the MLS System, and will be able to make appointments and answer your questions as you walk through potential homes. He or she will also provide up-to-the-minute information on financing, explain your mortgage options, negotiate with sellers, smooth out conflicts, and draw up contracts.


FINTRAC is the federal agency responsible for administering Canadian legislation and regulations concerning money laundering and terrorist financing. Your advisor is required to complete a Client Identification Form, and ask you for verified ID such as a driver’s license or passport. You can find out more at http://www.fintrac-canafe.gc.ca.

And a Note on Sticking With One Advisor

Some people think that they’ll get a better deal if they have more than one agent. The opposite is true. All agents have access to the same property listings. And scattering your time and energy among multiple agents will work against your goal of finding your best home.

5.            Hire a Lawyer

               There are many legal steps, and piles of documents, involved in the transfer or property ownership. You need someone to translate the ‘legalese’ and ensure that your interests are protected. Even if pit-falls like fraud, government legislation quirks, zoning issues or un-paid taxes don’t come up, lawyers will still make the transfer of the home a smooth one.

               To find the right lawyer, get referrals from people you know, or from your Real Estate Advisor. Ask your prospective lawyer about fee structure and get an estimate on other costs. If you don’t understand something, ask. And don’t be intimidated—it is a lawyer’s job to explain legal jargon and be helpful to his or her clients.

6.            Sell Your Current Home

               Few people can hold onto two homes at the same time. You’ll need to sell your current home and here’s a quick overview of things you need to know.

Buyer’s & Seller’s Markets                                                         

When lots of people are shopping for homes, but there are few homes for sale, it’s a ‘Seller’s Market’. When there are lots of homes for sale, but few people buying them, it’s a ‘Buyer’s Market’. However, if you’re selling one home to buy another, you don’t have to worry about the market. Unless you’re making a huge category change, the price that you get for your existing home will be relative to the price you pay for your new home.


It is true that winter sales tend to be slow. That means that winter is a good time to make offers. If someone has to sell a house in January, and there are fewer buyers looking, your negotiating advantage rises. In spring, sales tend to be brisk. This means that there’s more competition for those houses that are for sale—and that makes it a good time to accept higher offers.

If You Need to Sell Fast

This is where your Real Estate Advisor becomes your second-most valuable asset. He or she will help you to establish the right price, and make your home look attractive—without making you look desperate.

Buy First or Sell First?

The eternal question. Many people are able to time their sale and purchase to happen on the same ‘closing date’. As a buyer, you can make your offer ‘conditional’ on the sale of your existing home, so you’re not paying for the up-keep of two homes. Or, when selling, you can try to extend the ‘closing period’ to give yourself more time to find your next home.

7. Work Out the Finances

Figure Out What You Can Afford

               Before you start looking for your dream home, you have to find out how big that dream can be. A home is the most expensive thing you’ll ever buy, and there are lots of additional expenses to  consider. It is these extra costs that can leave people ‘mortgage-poor’ (where the cost of home ownership leaves them little else). So you need to think ahead.

               When buying a home, there are five main one-time costs: Down-Payment, Legal Fees, Title Insurance, Inspection Fees, Property Transfer Fees and Taxes. Depending on your circumstances, there is a sixth one-time cost—moving. If you have a large household, and/or are moving from a long distance, this expense can be significant.

               After that, there are five monthly costs: Mortgage, Utilities, Maintenance, Insurance and Property Taxes. How much of your monthly income these costs take will determine the size of your mortgage, i.e. how much you can borrow. We figure this out in one of two ways:

Gross Debt Service Ratio (GDSR) Calculation:

This lending principle states that your monthly housing cost should not exceed 32% of your gross monthly family income.

Total Debt Service Ratio (TDSR) Calculation:

Under this lending principle, your monthly housing cost and payments on all of your other debts (including loans, credit cards, and lease payments) should not exceed 40% of your gross monthly income.

Our What You Can Afford Calculator will let you easily estimate your maximum affordable mortgage payment of principal and interest. Just enter your monthly income and expense amounts, and the calculator will do the rest. Then, use our Mortgage Calculator and your monthly payments, showing principal and interest, will be figured out for you.

8.            Arrange a Mortgage

Who to Talk To

               There are hundreds of banks, credit unions and other lenders who would love your monthly mortgage payments. So talk to everybody—your banker, other banks and people you know. And talk to Blu—we have a lot of knowledge about mortgages and can offer great advice.

               But you may find that your best resource is a Mortgage Broker. Mortgage brokers make their living by finding low rates, and they usually don’t get paid unless you sign your mortgage through them. That motivation translates to getting you the best deal.

Your Best Mortgage Could Be the Seller’s Mortgage

               Often, you can take over, or ‘assume’, the seller’s mortgage. If the seller is locked into a lower interest rate than you can get, it’s a great idea.

Your Mortgage

               There are three items to note:

               Mortgage Term: This is the length of time of your bank loan—it’s usually five years. At the end of the term, you negotiate a new term, and new rates.

               Amortization: This is the length of time it will take to pay off the mortgage, and it often runs to 25 years. The longer your amortization, the lower your monthly payments (and the more interest paid).

               Interest Rate: Interest is the cost of borrowing money; the rate is a percentage of the total loan amount.

               Using Blu’s Mortgage Calculator, check the difference between borrowing $100,000 at 6% for 25 years, and at 9% over the same amortization period. At 6%, your total interest is $91,940.69; at 9%, $148,391.15. That difference of $56,450.46 affects how much you can borrow, and illustrates how important it is to find the best possible interest rate for your loan.

The Down-Payment

You want your mortgage to be as small as possible, which means making the biggest down-payment possible. So set aside as much money as you can. And think ahead: Does your new home need repairs? Do you want to renovate? Do you need appliances? Furniture?

Your Interest Rate: Fixed or Variable?

With a ‘variable’ mortgage, your rates fluctuate with the bank rates. With a ‘fixed-rate’ mortgage, you ‘lock in’ at a set rate for a set period. But if you lock in for five years and rates goes down, you’re stuck paying too much for five years. If rates steadily climb, you’ll save a bundle. Blu can offer good advice on this tough question.

The Home Buyers’ Plan – A Little Sweet Relief

If you’re a first-time homebuyer with money in an RRSP, you can withdraw up to $25,000 without paying income tax. If your spouse is also eligible, that’s $50,000. Ask Blu how to best take advantage of this plan.

Mortgage Application Check-List

Here’s the information you need to supply to your lender:

               Letter of Employment Confirmation: state your position, salary and length of employment.

               List of Assets: cars, stocks, bonds, GICs etc.

               List of Liabilities: car payments, students loans, credit card debt etc.

               Social Insurance Number

               Chequing Account Number

               Lawyer’s Contact Information

               Details about the house you want to buy

Budgeting for Extra Costs

There are lots of extra costs involved. You need to consider these, because they will add up.

               Application Fee: Some lenders charge a fee to process your application. Ask to have it waived.

               Appraisal Fee: Your mortgage lender may want your new home appraised by a professional, and will often pass that cost onto you. Ask if you can have that fee waived.

               Mortgage Broker’s Fee: Your mortgage broker may charge a fee that’s payable on your closing date. Ask your broker, in advance, what that fee will be.

               Land Survey Fee: Lenders may require a survey of your property, even if it’s an existing survey. Ask your lender about this at your first meeting, and check with your lawyer.

               Home Inspection Fee: A home inspection is crucial to avoiding surprises and protecting yourself. This is money well-spent.

               Home Insurance: Mortgage lenders require you to carry fire and extended-coverage insurance because your home is the security deposit on the mortgage. Often, you can have your insurance payments added to your monthly mortgage payments. But shop around for the best policy.

               Title Insurance: This is not mandatory, but it will protect you from all sorts of fraud and potential errors surrounding the title to your land. Ask your lawyer for details.

               Legal Fees: You’ll pay your lawyer for his or her invaluable time, plus you’ll pay for ‘disbursements’, i.e. costs involved in title searches, drawing up the title deed, and preparing your mortgage. Ask for estimates.

               Adjustments: Your home’s previous owner may have paid property tax or utilities in advance, and he or she will want to be credited for those payments. Your Blu Advisor and/or lawyer will know what might come up.

               Maintenance and Utilities: Remember that you will now have more monthly payments. There will be property taxes, and utilities. If your new home is a condominium, there will be monthly fees.

               Property Transfer Tax: The amount of this tax varies from province to province. Ask your Blu Advisor, or your lawyer.

                The GST/HST and New Homes: Resale homes don’t involve GST/HST, but newly-built homes do. If you intend to live in your new home (instead of renting it out) there is some relief. Consult your Blu Advisor and/or lawyer.

9. Go Shopping

Now your ducks are all in a row. You know what you want and what you can afford. And you have a Blu Advisor at your side to save you time, energy and money.

See What’s Out There

The Wonderful Realtor.ca

Real Estate Advisors have access to an incredible house-hunting tool called the MLS® System, which is operated by real estate boards across Canada. You can view the publicly-available information yourself, but your Blu Advisor has deeper access and can start sending you listings of potential new homes right away.  Most listings have multiple photos; some have moving 360-degree views. And with the interactive mapping feature, you’ll be amazed how fast and easy it is to zero in on your favourite houses.

Take Another Tour

Go back to the neighbourhoods that you previously identified as desirable. Go during the day, and at night. Note the proximity of industrial areas, railway tracks, airports and flight paths. Look for parks, schools, shopping areas and transit hubs. Jot down the addresses of houses with For Sale signs. If there are Open Houses under way, go inside and look around.

Open Houses

Open Houses are a great way of seeing the homes in your prospective neighbourhood. They will likely be hosted by an agent that knows the house, and the neighbourhood, very well. So don’t be afraid to ask questions.

Note: If you are going to open houses without your Blu Advisor, take some of your advisor’s cards with you. This will keep over-zealous agents from hounding you for information during your visit.

Private Viewings

When you have found homes that you want to see, tell your Blu Advisor and he or she will book the appointments for you. (The Realtor® Code of Ethics frowns upon clients contacting listing agents directly.)

Viewing Tips

Three Don’ts

               Don’t let a giant kitchen island or swanky hot tub distract you from your goal of finding a home that meets your needs and fits your budget.

               Don’t get carried away by the décor or furnishings. Try to visualize how the home will look once it’s yours—with your furniture, your paint colours, and your lifestyle.

               Don’t wear clothing that will make you tired—fatigue affects decisions. Wear light clothing and comfortable shoes that are easy to slip on and off.

10.         Make an Offer

               You’ve found a home! Congratulations! Now, if you actually want to make it yours, you have to make an offer that the seller will accept.

Preparing the Offer

Your Blu Advisor will prepare your offer for you and ensure that no details are overlooked. But here are some terms to note:

                Buyer: That’s you.

               Seller: The present owners.

               Purchase Price: The most important number. Let’s hope the seller goes for it!

               Deposit: A cheque you write to the seller or the seller’s broker. This is your way of saying ‘my offer is serious’. The size of the deposit is up to you.

               Chattels & Fixtures Included: This is what’s included in the house—the appliances, the draperies, the light fixtures. Be clear about this. Don’t assume that the dishwasher will be there when you move in.

               Irrevocability of the Offer: This refers to the length of time you give the seller to consider your offer. It’s usually no more than 48 hours.

               Completion Date: This is the glorious day you take possession; usually 30-60 days after signing.

               Clauses Particular to the Agreement: Every transaction is unique, and you may want to add conditions that are important to you, e.g. proper home inspection.

Submitting the Offer

You’ve signed on the dotted line and your advisor has given your offer to the seller. Now what? The seller can accept your offer, which is great. Or, the seller can reject your offer. This is not uncommon, but your Blu Advisor will find out why.

The seller may also ‘sign back’, or make you a ‘counter-offer’. In this case, the seller wants to alter some part of your offer—usually the price, in which case he or she will cross out your offered price and write in a higher number, or delete a condition. Then it’s your turn, and you can do the same, or accept the counter-offer. Your Blu Advisor will stick close to you through this process and see you through it.

11.         Have the Home Inspected

               When you’re buying a home, you need to scrutinize every last detail. Home inspections rarely cost more than a few hundred dollars, and they can help you avoid unpleasant surprises. Your Blu Advisor can recommend several trustworthy home inspection companies.

Make a Conditional Offer Based on a Satisfactory Home Inspection

This is an increasingly standard condition on any resale home. If the seller doesn’t want you to closely examine the home before you take possession, you may want to keep looking.

Hire a Qualified Professional

Make sure your inspector is a member of a recognized professional organization. Ask for, and check, references. You need to know that your inspector has the right training and experience.

What Will Inspectors Check?

Lots of stuff. Plumbing and electrical systems, the roof, visible insulation, walls, ceilings, floors, windows, and the integrity of the foundation. They also check for lead paint, asbestos, mould, outdated and dangerous wiring, and evidence of pests like mice or termites.

Join the Inspection

It’s going to be your home—get up close and personal. If your inspector finds a problem, you’ll learn about it. And, along the way, you’ll pick up maintenance tips from a pro.

Get it in Writing

Your inspection report will summarize the condition of your home. If there’s anything that needs work, the inspector will note an estimated cost for the repairs. That estimated cost will affect your offer.

Home Inspection for a New Home?

As mentioned, ‘new’ does not mean ‘perfect’, and construction quality can vary greatly from builder to builder. In some provinces, repairs and corrections required for new homes may be covered by government or industry-sponsored warranty programs. Bad news doesn’t necessarily mean it will have to cost you. Still, the inspection cost isn’t significant and may be worth it.

12.         Close the Purchase

               Your offer has been accepted and you can’t wait to move in. But you still have to close the deal. Your Blu Advisor and your lawyer will do most of the closing work. Here’s what you need to do.

Immediately begin satisfying any conditions of the agreement that require action on your part. Your Blu Advisor can fill out the documents stating that the conditions have been satisfied.

Have your lawyer search the property title. This can take a while, so make sure you allow ample time.

Well before closing, make sure that your insurance will be effective on your closing date. Your insurance broker will give you a ‘binder’ letter certifying that you’re covered. You can’t get a mortgage without this letter!

Have your lender finalize your mortgage documents and have your lawyer review them before you sign them.

A day or two before closing, you’ll meet with your lawyer to sign the closing documents. Your lawyer will tell you in advance what certified cheques you’ll need to seal the deal.

13.         Organize Your Move

               It’s time to move and there’s much to do. Here’s your check-list.

Call at least three moving companies. Get quotes, get references and check those references. We’ve all heard the nightmarish stories, so make sure that your mover is established, reputable and has insurance.

Schedule Your Move

‘Closing date’ may not mean moving date—you may not get the keys to your new home until late in the day. So schedule your actual move for a day, or two, after closing. And try to move on a week-day, and mid-month. Moving companies are busiest on week-ends, and at the beginning/end of each month. You may be able to negotiate a better rate if you move at another time.

Arrange Utilities

 Your lawyer will transfer essential utilities like hydro and water, but you’ll have to make the arrangements with the telephone and cable companies.

If You’re A Renter

Give notice to your landlord, or sub-let your apartment. You will have to clean; you may have to paint. Start this process early. Budget the time for it—and, if need be, the cost of hiring someone to do it.

Change-of-Address Notices

Go to Canada Post and register your change of address. Send out address cards to anyone who regularly sends you mail. And don’t forget to have the address changed on your driver’s license.

Evaluate & Liberate

A new home is a sort of new lease on life. This is a chance to liberate yourself from the stuff you’ve been hoarding for years. If you don’t need it or don’t want it, sell it or give it away. Have a garage sale and/or call around to various charities to see if they’ll pick up furnishings, clothing and appliances


Moving companies will do this, but you will do it best. If you buy your own boxes, and pack yourself, you’ll also save money. Start packing early, label anything that’s fragile and label your boxes by room so the movers will know where to put them.

14.         Breathe

               Breathe? Yes. Because, after you’re un-packed and settled in, you may feel strange urges—to buy a new carpet, get quotes on expanding the deck, shop for stainless steel appliances  So stop, breathe and relax. Take the time to adjust to your new budget. Take the time to enjoy, and love, your new home.

Profile: Finale Editworks

Advertorial, 1998

finaleWhen touring the Finale Editworks 9,500 square-foot facility near downtown Vancouver, technophiles thrill to the sight of room after room packed with hi-tech gadgets, screens, computers, control panels and thingamajigs galore laid out in a comfortable, elegant setting.

More impressive, however is running into a Los Angeles producer who, unbidden, stops to gush about the Finale editors. ‘Says they’re the best. That, when she can’t work in Vancouver, she flies her Finale editors down to L.A. ‘Won’t work with anyone else.

High praise. And well-earned. Since founding Finale in 1988, Don Thompson (formerly of CTV, U.TV and The Eyes), and his partner Dale Johannesen, have laboured to make Finale the best at what it does. Which is providing complete post-production services, including off-line editorial, on-line editing, and special effects design and duplication for television commercials, broadcast programs and videos.

At Finale, the editing process begins, obviously, when the client brings in what has been shot. The editors do a rough off-line edit, the client approves it, then they move to the high-resolution on-line edit, where colour corrections are made and sound and special effects are added. During the off-line phase, clients may have their own editors and creative staff involved—this is the decision-making process, where the piece is built from its original elements. But, once the project moves to the high-tech, creative on-line phase, the Finale editors take over. And it is this process that sets Finale apart.

“There’s no ‘right’ editing method and, obviously, the best editors are the ones whose work you don’t see,” says Thompson. “But editors are definitely crucial to the creative process, and add elements that writers never envision. There are many styles of editing, and there are big differences in how different editors approach a project—some are more comfortable with videos, some with commercials. There’s also a character factor, where certain editors are off the wall, others are more conservative. Each client is looking for something different—sometimes complementary talent, sometimes talents opposite to their own. The trick is to match them up, and we’re good at that.”

That doesn’t mean that clients can’t be involved at the on-line stage. “The creative process often depends on the synergy between our editors and clients, so producers can work from our office and supervise at all stages of the production. That’s a real comfort to those clients who have a specific direction and want to remain very much involved. Other clients, though, let the editors work their craft, and only come in to oversee the finishing touches.

“When producers hire an editing facility, they should want its creativity. That’s what they’re paying for and that’s how they’ll get the most out of the process. Some editors are just technical types, but most are very creative. Here, we have a depth of editors with different talents and different approaches, and that’s why clients come to us. They know they can find a varied set of talents and that our post managers can keep their projects on track.”

The majority of Finale’s clients are independent documentary makers, video producers and advertising agencies; about 70% from Western Canada, the rest from Toronto and Los Angeles. Most business comes through word of mouth, but the company has benefited from an inventive advertising campaign (care of the erstwhile Moreland & Associates) and more effort has been put into marketing.

“We needed to re-position the company because we were having trouble breaking through some mental barriers in the advertising world, regarding what Finale was and what kind of clients it could service,” continues Thompson. “We don’t do film transfers and, in Vancouver, the perception was that, unless you do transfers, you can’t tackle the large national campaigns. The agencies had looked to us when they were in a bind and we always delivered on time, on budget and with a lot of creativity. Clients become comfortable with their regular suppliers, naturally. But sometimes, you have to look for fresh talent and ideas, and we’ve done some very successful agency work. We’ve been effective at raising awareness and showing that we can be creative in a technology-driven business.”

Technology is, of course, a huge part of Finale’s business, but Thompson says he has found a balance. “We’re under constant pressure to have the latest toys, but we’ve been able to combine the old and the new in a way which works well for us and our clients. Every three years, we go through a major technological up-grade, and we’re always looking for new things to enhance our capabilities. One big advantage here is that we train our clients as well as our staff, so clients understand our equipment’s capabilities and get the most out of it.”

Sound editing has lately become an increasingly important part of Finale’s services, largely due to client demand, and it recently installed a new audio studio. And Finale’s sister company, Image Engine Design & FX, has evolved from an in-house graphics department into a successful stand-alone boutique. (Finale also owns Shooters Production Services.) Thompson says that the clients now know that Finale can handle all their needs.

“It’s important that all clients, particularly out-of-town clients, have that confidence—in Finale or its competition. But what sets facilities apart is talent, and we have some of the most talent editors in the business. In post-production in Vancouver, there’s a lot of talent, period. And that’s what’s allowed Vancouver to attract the calibre of the shows that are produced here.”

Getting to Know Grappa

Firewater… paint remover… anesthetic… *(@%^+)&!!!


It has been called a lot of names over the years. And, sometimes, justifiably. But in recent years, it has quietly experienced its own small revolution and, in some circles, it is now usurping the place of cognac as ‘the’ after-dinner drink of choice. It is grappa.

Vancouver’s resident grappa expert is Giorgio Castiglioni, Area Manager of Focus Wines & Spirits, who agrees that grappa drinking was once only for those with iron-clad taste buds.

“Up until about twenty years ago, drinking grappa was often a bad experience. Fifteen years ago, you would never see an elegant woman leaving a liquor store with a bottle of grappa–a certain class of people simply wouldn’t touch it. But since then, distillers have been experimenting and improving their methods. Now, grappa is a much more rounded, pleasurable drink. It is a first-class alternative to cognac and its international popularity has seen incredible growth.”

Grappa is a spirit distilled from the skin and the grasp of the grape. And while the grappa-making process is quick and easy, creating a top-quality grappa takes great care.

The process begins when newly-harvested grapes are placed in a de-grasper, which separates the fruit from the grasp. The fruit is pressed, either with a horizontal (or soft) press, which removes only the best juice; or with a vertical press, which removes all of the juice. After pressing, the remaining solids–the ‘vinacce’–go on to become grappa.

 The distinction between best-quality grappa and lesser grappa lies with the vinacce. While the less discriminating grappa producer will use all post-pressing materials (including twigs), those distillers most concerned with quality will seek out the best grapes, then use only the very wet skin from soft-pressed grapes.

After pressing, the grappa-maker has two styles from which to choose: continuous-cycle distilling, or discontinuous (artigiano) cycle. And both involve a grappa-making machine, or ‘alambiccho’, a complex, custom-made copper contraption of ancient origin.


The continuous-cycle process uses the conveyor-belt system, wherein the solids automatically roll into the alambiccho and the grappa comes out the other end. With this method, up to 300,000 kg of vinacce may be processed daily. With the discontinuous-cycle method, small amounts of vinacce are placed manually in the alambiccho, the vinacce is distilled, the receptacles are emptied and cleaned and the alambiccho is filled again.

With either method, the solids are processed via direct flame, boiling or steaming. But the discontinuous-cycle method is more selective, only 10,000 kg of vinacce is processed in one day, and the product is a much better grappa.

The grappa-distilling process begins with the moist, spongy vinacce. As it is heated, the steam rises into a plated column, then into a filter, into a cooling system, and into another series of filters before being expelled as a liquid. The liquid then passes through a valve to remove the ‘head and tail’ deposits. As the alcohol is released at 78C, the resulting fresh grappa appears at 70% alcohol, so it is cut with distilled water to achieve the 40-43% drinking level. After that, nothing is added. The grappa is bottled and corked.

grappa grappa1

As mentioned, the big difference between ‘industrial’ grappa and best-quality grappa is that the industrial-style distillers use any kind of vinacce–they don’t care where the grapes come from or how many grape varietals are involved. But in making best-quality grappa, distillers are very particular. They look for specific varietals of a specific quality.

“The more particular distillers, such as Poli, pay more for best quality vinacce,” explains Castiglioni. “Best-quality grappa is made from no more than two varietals. Monovitigno Grappa is made from one type of grape, Grappa Aromatica is made from aromatic grapes such as Muscato and Traminer, and Sarpa is a blend of Cabernet and Merlot grapes.”

The best grappa is that which is bottled early. Young grappa, or Grappa Giovane (Pinot, Sarpa and Vespaiolo), is white and offers the strong primary aroma and flavour of the vinacce. Grappa Affinata is aged for six to twelve months in wooden barrels and has a slightly woody flavour. The grappa Invecchiata, Stravecchia and Riserva are aged for a minimum of one year in barrels of different types of wood. These have more substance and a stronger,  woody flavour and, after having absorbed the wood’s colour, turn yellow. They’re still good quality, but real grappa fans tend to go for the Grappa Giovane.

The word ‘grappa’ comes from the Latin ‘grappolus’, meaning ‘bunch of grapes’, and the beverage is distinctly Italian. All Italian regions produce grappa, but those best-known for their quality grappa are Veneto, Friuli, Piemonte, Emilia Romagna and Sicily. Grappa may not be a household term here but, in Italy, it has its own town and its own museum–the Museo Della Grappa in the Vicenza (Veneto) town of Bassano Del Grappa.


Grappa came into existence in Medieval times, when the lords owned all of the land and, after the harvest, took the wine and left the peasants with the otherwise-wasted mush. It occurred to someone that the mush could be distilled. The alambiccho was invented, and enterprising grappa-makers began traveling from village to village with the portable alambiccho, distilling each family’s vinacce. More than a few people died in alambiccho explosions and the result was indeed fire water–almost 80% alcohol with, probably, a horrible flavour. ‘Course in those days, its main use was as a cure for stomach problems, as a disinfectant for cuts, and as dental anesthetic.

Gradually, the quality of grappa improved with advances in technology but, up until the late 1960s, it was still a cheap local drink. Then grappa-makers started to experiment with new methods. They discovered, for example, that the vinacce must be fresh and wet–that you can’t just leave it to dry out in a barn until you get around to distilling it. Grappa is best when made on the day of the pressing, or the vinacce has to be refrigerated until the grappa can be made.

“This is one of the reasons for the higher cost of grappa,” says Castiglioni. “To keep the vinacce fresh, it must be transported and stored in refrigerated compartments. Also, the quality distillers spend a lot of time in the fields during the harvest, carefully scrutinizing the quality of their vinacce to make sure that it is moist and wet. Then there’s the alambiccho–the modern alambiccho is an expensive custom-made piece of equipment with a very high hygiene factor.

“That is why Grappa can be very expensive,” continues Castiglioni. “Today, the aficionado could spend up to $500.00 for a bottle, and many people happily spend that. But if someone is just starting to try grappa, I tell them to look for something in the $30.00 to $60.00 range.”

Pricing is one area where grappa is in the same category as other fine distilled beverages. The other area, says Castiglioni, is in its evolution. “Scotch, cognac and aquavit have roughly the same history. They’ve undergone the same process of experimentation–it’s just taken grappa longer to catch up.”

But one doesn’t consume grappa the way one would drink other spirits. Because of its strength and weight, grappa is usually consumed in the winter months. It is served at room temperature, or slightly chilled, and is appreciated as a digestive–often with coffee, always after a full meal.

“Grappa cleans out the mouth and washes away the fats,” says Castiglioni, who also notes that the effects of grappa remain true to their reputation. “You have to be careful with it. It is a very strong alcoholic beverage and, usually, one is enough. The amount you should drink depends on how much you’ve eaten, how much wine you had with dinner and how much alcohol you can handle. And if you’re serving it at a dinner party, you should know that, once your guests have had grappa, you can’t give them any more alcohol. Grappa fills the senses completely.”


Grappa is also used liberally in Italian kitchens, as a spirited addition to roast lamb, veal scaloppini, pork tenderloin and sautéed prawns. It can be used in pasta sauces, in fish sauces, and to flambé fruit. And while it experiences its renaissance, it follows that the best Italian kitchens would be in on the grappa revolution.

With a selection of 40 brands of grappa, Vancouver’s top Italian restaurant, Quattro on Fourth, has by far the city’s largest grappa selection. Quattro’s sommelier, Patrick Corsi, is enjoying the changing perception, and the ever-increasing popularity, of grappa.

“Italian restaurants here traditionally don’t encourage their customers to try grappa and, until recently, the BC Liquor Distribution Branch only offered a selection of three. There was also the perception that customers weren’t interested in grappa–and it’s true that it had a bad reputation. Grappa is an acquired taste. But fine dining is all about education.”

At Quattro, and at other fine Italian restaurants, grappa sales are way up.  Many grappa brands are now privately imported and, due to growing demand, the BCLDB now offers 13 brands.

“It’s becoming a very popular after-dinner drink, especially among sophisticated wine drinkers,” continues Corsi. “At the moment, about 90% of our grappa enthusiasts are men, but more women are trying it and, once they’ve tried it and experimented a little, they order it again and again. So we’ll keep encouraging it. If a restaurant wants to present the whole Italian culinary experience, it can’t exclude grappa–it’s a big part of the Italian culture.”

Promotional, 1994